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June Scouting Tips

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Insects to be on the Lookout for in June

Field and Vegetable Crops

Insect:Host(s)DescriptionTreatment timing*
Aphids: Any crop but in particular crucifer cropsLook for small soft- bodied insects causing the leaves to be stunted, yellowed, and/or curled.Cut out and destroy small localized areas on plants or treat with an insecticide labeled for aphids and that particular crop.
Black Cutworm and other Cutworms: Many crops but in particular cornMedium to large cater- pillars cut off plants at the base. Inspect newly planted seed beds and newly set plants.If more than 5% of the plants are cut then control with an insecticide or bait is warranted.  
Colorado Potato Beetle: Potato, tomato, eggplant, pepper, tobacco, and other solanaceous plantsAdults are yellow with brown stripes, they are oval-convex in shape. The larva is yellowish red or orange and has a row of black spots along each side of its body.For small gardens, beetles can be removed by hand- picking, larger areas or heavy infestations will require the use of insecticides.
Cucumber Beetle: Cucumber, cantaloupes, gourd, squash, and watermelon are  preferred hosts. They are found on other crops but are not as important.Two beetles feed on cucurbits in Virginia, the spotted cuc. beetle is pale green with black spots on its wing covers, the striped cuc. beetle is pale green with black stripes on its wing covers. Both transmit bacterial wilt of cucurbits.Foliar sprays may be necessary in some cases. To prevent bacterial wilt treat when 1 beetle per 100 row feet is found.   
European Corn Borer: Many  crops but in  particular corn        On corn look for shot-hole damage in the whorl late-June and early-July. In addition, look for the flattened egg masses with eggs overlapping like fish scales on the under- sides of the leaves, look from the first of July to mid July for the egg masses. Be sure to scout the inner parts of the field because the border rows tend to have have higher populations of ECB.Treatment on field corn is warranted if more than 50% of the plants have an egg mass. Count 50 random plants and if the average number of egg mass exceeds 0.5 then treatment may be necessary. Treatment must be made just after egg hatch. Growers in Virginia usually treat between the first and fifteenth of July when necessary.
Flea beetle: Corn, eggplant, and many other crops  Small black beetles jumping like fleas when disturbed from the leaves of a plant. They scrape the upper epidermis layer off the leaf and sometimes fruit leaving a brown scar.Spray with Sevin when damage becomes severe.    
Imported Cabbageworm: Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and  other crucifersVelvet green caterpillars with a faint yellow stripe down the back and a row of  yellow spots on each side. Medium sized. Treat when caterpillar populations reach a threshold of one worm per plant, repeat every 5 to 7 days as needed.  
True Armyworm: Corn and other grass plants, but on many vegetable crops as wellMedium to large cater- pillars, brown with yellow markings, usually feeding on the upper parts of the plant at night. When defoliation reaches 20%, insecticide control is warranted.   
Stink Bug: Many crops but in particular pepper and  tomato     Barrel shaped eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves, nymphs are black and white or red or green. Adults are green or tan. All stages have piercing- sucking mouth parts. Damage to pepper and tomato appears as white halos and deformations on the fruits.Removing weedy growth that harbors stink bugs will cut down on native breeding sites. Spot treatments of insecticides when stink bugs are seen is recommended.   
Squash Bug: All cucurbits; squash bugs prefer squash, pumpkin, cucumber, and melon in that orderNymphs are grayish white with dark heads and appendages. Adults are oval elongate, light gray, and mottled yellow on the underside. Nymphs tend to be found on the basal portions of the vine.Handpicking works well in small gardens. Chemical control might be needed in larger operations.  

Fruit Insects

Insect:Host(s)DescriptionTreatment timing*
Codling Moth: Apple and pear primarily, but cherries, peaches, plums, apricots, and similar fruits are attacked.Pinkish-white caterpillars enter fruit at calyx end and tunnel all the way to the core. Adult moths are grayish-brown with irregular golden brown lines on the fore wings. 1/2-3/4" wingspan.If using pheromone traps, treat if you exceed 5/trap/ week.    
European Red Mite: Apple pear, plum, prune, and many other trees and shrubs Mites are very small and range from red to green. Foliage turns a sickly bronze color as if covered with dust.  This mite is resistant to many miticides, so make sure that the chemical you will use is effective. A dormant oil applied at the 1/2" green leaf stage or earlier in the spring is important also.
Green Apple Aphid: Apple, pear  Pale green nymphs on the underside of leaves and new shoots, often a problem on trees with excessive shoot growth due to overfertilization.Treat when 50% or more of the shoots are infested.   
Peach Tree  Borer: Peach,  plum, cherry, nectarine, apricotLook for a mass of gum and frass at the base of the trunk, white larvae will be found under the bark from 3" below the soil level to 10" above.Adults emerge July- September; treat during the first week of July.  
San Jose Scale: Apple, pear, cherry, and many other fruit treesScales are dirty gray with a dark concentric ring on the center.  Scales infest the branches, twigs, and fruit.Treat June 10-15, late-July.    
Variegated Leaf- roller and Tufted Apple Budworm: Both are general feeders but are pests on apple and peachEggs are laid on leaves in masses in which the eggs overlap much like fish scales.     Treat when egg masses are about to hatch (dark head stage).    

Ornamental Insects

Insect:Host(s)DescriptionTreatment timing*
Azalea Bark Scale: Azalea, blueberry, rhododendronLook for white cottony sacs covering dark red females and eggs on the forks of branches and twigs.Treat June 10 and 20.  
Azalea Stem Borer: Azalea, rhododendron, mountain-laurel, blueberry  Look for tips dying back and yellow legless grubs up to 1/2" long boring in twigs and trunk.   Treat mid-May and mid- June with an insecticide or cut out and destroy dead and dying  tips as noticed. Borer paste in the holes will give some control also.
Bagworm: Conifers, maples sycamores, box- elder, and many others  Caterpillars form "bags" around their bodies made of silk and plant debris.  They overwinter as eggs in the bags; the eggs hatch in late May and early June.Pick off and destroy all bagworms now and/or treat with an insecticide in mid- June. Next spring, early, pick off all bags you can find.  
Black Vine Weevil: Nearly 80 hosts including most broad- leaved evergreensAdults notch leaves inward from the outer margin.  Larvae feed on the roots and weaken the plant, often causing it to wilt.Treat with an insecticide in the second or third week of June. Spray the leaves branches, trunk, and soil under the plant.
Bronze Birch Borer: Birch, cottonwood, poplar, aspenLook for the top of the tree dying back and up to 1" long flat-headed borers under the bark.Treat mid-May, and early-, mid-, and late-June; spray trunk and branches heavily and leaves lightly.
Boxwood Leaf- miner: Boxwood   Look for yellowed leaves and leaves with small brown spots.  This time of year the adult yellow flies may still be found on the foliage.Treat early June; the addition of a wetting agent may be helpful.  
Cottony Maple Scale: All maples, locust, white ash, red mulberry, linden boxwood and many othersLook for cottony masses on the undersides of twigs and branches. Foliage on affected branches may turn yellow and the branch may die. Treat June 10 and 20.      
Cottony Camellia Scale: yew (taxus), camellia, hollyLook for a long fluted cottony egg mass on the undersides of leaves and branches.Treat June 10-20. 
Eastern Pine Looper: pitch red, shortleaf, and loblolly pine  Look for yellow loopers with black markings feeding on the foliage. Usually a minor pest, but because large numbers of the adult moths were seen this spring it may present a problem on some plantings.Treat if damaging numbers are found.     
Elm Leaf Beetles: Elm  Newly hatched larvae are yellowish with black markings; adults are olive green with two black lines.Control newly hatched larvae in late-May and early-June. 
European Fruit Lecanium Scale: Most fruit trees and many ornamental plants.  Large hemispherical to oval scale, shiny brown or reddish-brown but some- time covered with a white powder. On the bark and twigs in the winter and on the leaves near the mid- rib during the summer.Treat June 10-15.      
Fall Webworm: Most fruit and nut trees as well as some hardwoods and shrubs.Eggs are laid in a mass of 200 to 500 often covered with a woolly layer of scales. Large groups of larvae form a nest at the tip of a branch.Nests can be pruned out in early summer or if a large number of nests exists, treat mid- to late-June or when new larvae appear.
Florinia Hemlock Scale: Hemlock fir, spruce, yew    Cast skins give trees a white-washed appearance with many scales on the undersides of needles. Scales under close examination are yellow in color. Crawler stage peaks May 15-June 20.Treat May 20-25 and June 5-10     
Gloomy Scale: Mostly soft maples Dark gray and circular scales, blending in closely with the color of the bark. Treat June 20-30. Note this scale is often controlled by its natural enemies.
Hickory Leaf Stem Gall: Hickory    Galls shaped like bullets develop on the petioles and shoots.  Leaves with galls fall off the tree prematurely causing concern by the tree’s owner. Galls are formed by aphids.No control is needed on large trees as these galls do not harm them.  On small trees or nursery stock control may be warranted   
Holly Leafminer: Native and English holly  Look for long serpentine or blotch mines in the leaves. Heavily infested leaves turn yellow-brown. Inside the leaves will be small pale larvae.Treat mid-June with a systemic insecticide. Small numbers of infested leaves can be picked off and destroyed.
Juniper Scale: Juniper   Crawler stage is from April 5-22 and June 5-20. Scales have an elongate white covering with a yellow cap at one end.Treat April 10-15 and/or June 10-15.   
Japanese Scale: Maple, privet Long and narrow scale, dull white in color, often found on the trunks and branches.Treat at 2-week intervals from June 1-Sept. 1. 
Japanese Weevil: Many ornamental plantings as  well as garden plantsCuts broad notches on the outer margins of leaves.   Treat the second and third weeks of June.   
Lace Bugs:  andromeda, oak azalea, walnut rhododendron, sycamoreNew damage will not be apparent yet this year, but last season's damage appears as stippling and brown droppings on the leaves.Lace bugs overwinter as adults on deciduous plants. Treat in late May and repeat in June and July. On ever- greens lace bugs overwinter in the egg stage.
Lecanium Scale: Oak Scales are dark to light brown and elliptical in shape, often tapering at both ends.Treat June 15-20.  
Mimosa Webworm: Mimosa and honeylocust  Larvae feed gregariously in a web spun over the flowers and leaves and later feed individually on leaves and pods.Treat when trees show first signs of feeding in June. May need to repeat in mid-July and mid-August. 
Pine Bark Aphid: Principally on white pine but on other pines as well Look for cottony masses on the bark and branches covering small, aphid-like, pale-green insects.  Treat late-June and mid-August. Make sure the insecticide is applied with strong stream that penetrates the "cotton". Small populations can be dislodged with a strong stream of water alone.
Rhododendron Borer: Rhododendron, some- times azalea and mountain-laurelLarvae bore in the sap- wood just under the bark, causing the branches to wilt and die. Adults are clear-winged moths.Treat June 10-15, and July 5-10. Prune out any infested branches.  
San Jose Scale: Many trees and shrubs  Scales are dirty gray with a dark concentric ring on the center.  Scales infest the branches, twigs, and fruit.Treat June 10-15, July 10-15, and September 10-15.   
Wax Scale: Holly, euonymus, pyracantha, box- wood, hemlock, and othersA globular off-white scale found on the twigs and leaves. So named because of its waxy cover. Treat June 10-30.    
White Pine Weevil: Pines and spruces  The larvae is a yellowish, legless, grub that feeds under the bark on the terminal leader. The leader wilts and droops in the spring, indicating the presence of the grub.Prune and destroy infested shoots in May and June.  

* See Virginia Pest Management Guides for recommendations on insecticides and rates. Use insecticide applications only when high population levels demand control action. Most plants can support small populations of pest insects.